Probiotics and Prebiotics: The Newest Cosmetic “It-Words”

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Just in case you got bored from hearing the words “natural and organic” or “preservative-free”, here comes a brand new catch phrase courtesy of the marketing departments of skin care companies: Probiotic. This word is borrowed from medicine, in which live bacteria are used for the gastro-intestinal (GI) system to accelerate recovery from antibiotics and other general problems. The skincare industry has no problem using a word that doesn’t apply in any way to skin care to sell you their old products as something brand new.

An Interesting Dilemma

Probiotics in medicine involve the delivery of live bacteria that may help change the bacterial flora of your GI system. However, bacteria are not allowed in skin care. They would lead to changes in the product that would vary depending on different environmental conditions. This is why we must use preservatives. The law demands testing for bacteria and allows for only a few  innocuous (harmless) bacteria and NO disease-causing bacteria. How does the industry plan on getting away with selling bacteria filled skin care products? It doesn’t. At most, the industry can add dead bacteria or extracts that are free from bacteria. But, with a bit of chutzpah, they call these “probiotics” and “prebiotics”, which does not apply in any way.

We will always warn you to distrust misguided marketing, so don’t buy skin care products that are advertised as probiotic. If you want a probiotic skin care treatment, do it yourself! Give yourself a yogurt facial.

Our May/June bonus celebrates this do-it-yourself idea. It features a kit that you simply add to a plain (full fat) yogurt from your local grocery store. It’s easier than making a salad, and is a real probiotic mask!

Prebiotics

In a diet, a prebiotic is an ingredient obtained by fermentation. It modifies the GI environment and changes the bacterial composition in a beneficial way. In nutrition, the following  polysaccharides have been shown to change the GI flora: trans-galactooligosaccharide and inulin, larch arabinogalactan, pectin, beta-glucans, and xylooligosaccharides.
We use some of these polysaccharides in our products, but we would not call them prebiotic. There is no published research showing that they actually change the skin’s bacterial flora. We use them because they have been shown to provide other benefits, usually an improvement of the immune response of the skin.

What will you find in “probiotic” skin products?

Below are some ingredient lists of “probiotic” skin care products. In bold you will find ingredients related to bacteria, but they are definitely bacteria-free! Bacteria have been killed using heat or UV radiation.

Tula Hydrating Day & Night Cream, 1.7oz $52

Ingredients: Water, Butylene Glycol, Ethylhexyl Palmitate, Squalane, Glycerin, Caprylic/Capric Triglycerides, Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil, Dimethicone, Glyceryl Stearate, PEG-100 Stearate, Lactose, Milk Protein, Bifida Ferment Lysate, Yogurt Extract, Hydrolyzed Rice Protein, Chicory Root Extract, Blueberry Fruit Extract, Vegetable Oil, Camelina Sativa Seed Oil, Tea Extract, Turmeric Root Extract, Tocopheryl Acetate, Retinyl Palmitate, Ascorbyl Palmitate, Tocopherol, Ascorbic Acid, Safflower Seed Oil, Olive Oil, Watermelon Extract, Apple  Extract, Lentil Fruit Extract, Palo Santo Wood Oil, Lemon Fruit Oil, Orange Oil, Texas Cedarwood Oil, Ylang-Yalang Flower Oil, Sodium Lactate, Sodium PCA, Sodium Carbonate, Polysorbate 80, Polysorbate 20, Beeswax, Carbomer, Sodium Hydroxide, Tetrasodium EDTA, Disodium EDTA, Pentylene Glycol, Caprylyl Glycol, Hexylene Glycol, Ethylhexylglycerin, Phenoxyethanol.

mybody FUTURE IS BRIGHT Probiotic Anti-Aging Hydrator, 1.7oz $85
Nothing probiotic (or very useful either) in this list

Ingredients: Water, Lauryl Lactate, Emulsifying Wax, Pentaerythrityl Tetracaprylate/ Tetracaprate, Cetyl Alcohol, Dimethicone, Glycerin, PPG-2 Myristyl Ether Propionate, Cetearyl Alcohol, Cyclopentasiloxane,  Cyclohexasiloxane,  Myristoyl Nonapeptide-3,  Dimethylmethoxy Chromanyl Palmitate,  Undecylenoyl Phenylalanine, Beta Glucan, Arginine, Panthenol, Sodium Hyaluronate, Tea Extract, Matricaria Flower Extract, Borage Seed Oil, Tocopheryl Acetate, Behentrimonium Methosulfate, Retinyl Palmitate, Disodium EDTA, Methyl Gluceth-20, Polyacrylamide, C13-14 Isoparaffin, Laureth-17, Xanthan Gum, Caprylyl Glycol, Phenoxyethanol, Fragrance.

Eminence Clear Skin Probiotic Masque, 2oz $54

Ingredients: Cucumber Juice, Corn Germ Oil, Shea Butter, Marigold Oil, Yogurt*, Vegetable Glycerin, Kaolin Clay, Stone Crop Juice, Tea Tree Oil, Cyclodextrin, Soybean Oil, Corn Starch, Xanthan Gum, Squalane, Ubiquinone, Tocopheryl Acetate (synthetic Vitamin E), Ascorbyl Palmitate (synthetic Vitamin C Ester).

*Yogurt can’t be used in skin care because it contains millions of bacteria. Dead yogurt, by definition, is NOT a probiotic.

Mother Dirt Cleanser, 3.4oz $15

Water, Lauramidopropyl Betaine (synthetic detergent), Rose Flower Water, Decyl Glucoside (synthetic detergent), Apple Fruit Extract, Glycerin, Hydrolyzed Quinoa, Hydroxypropylcellulose  (synthetic thickener), Citric Acid (pH adjuster).

Note that there are no preservatives listed (very unlikely because there is good food for bacteria and mold in this formulation!)

And, from the same company that produces Mother Dirt skin care, AO + Mist, a product actively defying FDA regulations, and containing “Live cultured ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) is our patented strain of live cultured Nitrosomonas bacteria (Nitrosomonas D23), a type of Ammonia-Oxidizing-Bacteria.”
I could not find information regarding Nitrosomonas D23. I would not volunteer for this experiment in which you agree to be a Guinea pig!

Skin Care Confusion: Getting to Know Skin Care Formulas

By far, the most common customer questions we receive are about HOW MANY skin care formulas are out there. Which ones are truly necessary? How many do I need and what order do I apply them? The marketing we see on a daily basis leads us to believe if we aren’t using this miracle serum or that wrinkle-busting cream we are missing out on the latest skin care miracle. With a new one every week, how different can it really be?
Can it be worth these enormous retail prices? Is it all just glossy marketing?

We asked Dr. Hannah to give us the breakdown of what these formulas really are (or are supposed to be).

Below that we will go over “skin care routines” and what order to use your skin care.

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Cream

Emulsion of oil and water in approximately equal proportions. Penetrates stratum corneum outer layer of skin well. Both oil soluble and water soluble actives can be used.

Lotion
A lotion is a low viscosity topical preparation intended for application to unbroken skin. By contrast, creams have higher viscosity than lotions.

Gel
A gel is a jelly-like material that can have properties ranging from soft and weak to hard and tough. Gels are defined as a substantially dilute cross-linked system, which exhibits no flow when in the steady-state. By weight, gels are mostly liquid, yet they behave like solids because the polymers dissolved in the water form a three-dimensional cross-linked network within the liquid. It is the crosslinking within the fluid that give a gel its structure and contribute to the adhesive stick. Because viscosity of the gel depends on the interaction between the solid and water, it can change greatly by adding even small amounts of salts or other ingredients.

Serum
In the skin care industry, “serum” is a fancy term for lotion, with oil and water components that vary.  Serum is a word borrowed from medicine, to suggest the idea of something strong that can benefit your skin. The usual meaning is less fancy: a blood derived liquid, plasma, from which the clotting factors have been removed. The industry steals many terms from medicine and science in general. Because by the FDA definition a cosmetic cannot be claimed to change skin physiology, the medical-sounding terminology is used to convey the idea of a medical benefit without annoying the FDA.

Toner
A toner is a liquid, mostly water but with additions, used to remove rests of oils and sebum, stripping the skin from oily substances. But oil has a purpose: it lubricates and hydrates the skin. People think oil means they’re dirty, not true at all. Photoshop has also convienced people (women mostly) that the skin is supposed to be opaque and not glossy.

Exfoliants
Resurface your skin and get the “smooth feel” but beware of the cost to your skin. There are three ways of exfoliating your skin: physical (like crystals used in micro-exfoliation), chemical peels, and enzymatic peels. At Skin Actives we have products that use these three methodologies while preserving skin health.

Acids
Chemical peels are acid solutions that will break down the proteins in the most external layers of the skin when used with caution (if used without great caution they will burn the skin). Our TCA spot peel is the strongest we offer, for those pesky hyperpigmentation spots that will not go away with anything else. Use as directed and you will do well. We have a milder form of chemical peel, our Alpha Beta Exfoliator, which can be used on face, décolleté and hands without problems. It will provide an “invisible” peel, and you will have satisfyingly smooth skin without down time or visible peeling. Our Vitamin C Serum with its low pH will leave your skin feeling smooth.

Proteases
Have you ever used meat tenderizer? Do you use cold water washing powder for your clothes? How about contact lens cleansers? If you answer “yes” to any of these questions, then you have used proteases. Meat tenderizer contains papain. Cold water washing liquid has subtilisin to break down proteins that stain your clothes. And strong contact lens cleansers also contain subtilisin. Proteases are proteins with enzymatic activity; they can break down very specific bonds linking amino acids in proteins, breaking down those proteins into pieces. Proteases will not penetrate very far at all, so they are very safe. A warning for those of us with a tendency to develop allergies: please take into account that many people become allergic to some proteases, especially papain and subtilisin (this is why I use protease free liquid to wash my clothes). When applied to skin, proteases with the right specificity will hydrolyze the proteins in the most superficial layers of the skin, exfoliating dead skin cells and impurities. Exfoliation will help keep your pores open and free of blackheads and acne.

Sunscreen
This is a lotion that contains ingredients capable of absorbing or reflecting UV radiation before it reaches the skin to prevent burning and aging.

What is the perfect “routine” or “regime” for my skin?

Guess what? There isn’t one. The a.m. and p.m. timetable, with detailed accounts of the products is a fake. What would you expect? The same cosmetic line that is giving you this information is trying to sell you everything at their counter. No big surprise there… There is no evidence supporting it. It was devised by the marketing department in an effort to get you to buy as many products as possible.Is there anything that you must do to protect your skin from the harsh environment and aging? Yes. Of course. If a schedule makes your life easier, go for it. You need to think of the specific obstacles to skin health that you face every day. Do you live in a polluted city? Then, you need to either move or start using antioxidants. Always use sunscreen, as sunlight will age your skin if it has a chance to reach it. If you have acne, stop touching your blemishes and try our Acne Control Set. Most importantly, find a schedule that will make it easy for you to remember what to do. If you never remember to put it on, you will never get the benefit.

What about Cleanse, Tone, Moisturize? 

It is always a good idea to cleanse your skin before you apply a product, because whatever stuff has accumulated during the day will have a chance to enter your skin unless it is removed. But please don’t try to remove what should not be removed. Your skin is not a wall to scrub clean, but a living organ. Go too far and you will be breaking the skin barrier, created by your body to keep you safe.

And what about toner? Nobody knows what this term means, except for the marketing department. It used to be an alcohol/water solution used to remove any traces of sebum in order to make you think that your skin was “clean”. Now it is anything used to remove cleanser. The alcohol would dry your skin and tighten it, making you think that the toner was doing it’s job. In reality, alcohol is just stripping your skin. Find a nice alcohol-free toner like ours, SAS Marine Toner is nourishing with sea kelp and refreshes with neroli and witch hazel.

Most of you know that moisturizing your skin is the key to younger looking and healthier, happier skin. We have many options with many different actives for every skin type. You can moisturize as often as your skin needs. This can change with seasons, hormones and diet. Listen to your skin!

Here are a few guidelines for application of the different formulas: Water based serums should be layered before your creams or oils. Vitamin C Serum should be applied 30-60 min before any moisturizers. Vitamin A should only be used at night, it makes you light sensitive.

 

 

Cosmetics: A Long Tradition of Ignoring Common Sense

How old is the complicity between cosmetic companies and the press? Very old. Take a look at an excerpt from this article titled “The Poisonous Beauty Advice Columns of Victorian England.”

 

 

“Glass and tin bottles hide snug in a case, waiting for a woman’s daily ritual. She reaches for a bottle of ammonia and washes it over her face, careful to replace the delicate glass stopper. Next, she dips her fingertips into the creams and powders of her toilet table, gravitating toward a bright white paint, filled with lead, which she delicately paints over her features. It’s important to avoid smiling; the paint will set, and any emotion will make it unattractively crack.”

 

YIKES! The article goes on to explain how women would nibble on arsenic wafers to get a very pale skin tone and acheive a “near death” look. This may seem crazy to us now, but it was all the rage less than two centuries ago. Don’t think for a moment that this type of marketing is isolated to the cosmetics industry. Chocolate lovers were tricked in the same way that many skin care buyers have been again and again. Slick marketing from Mast Brothers Chocolate (see articles HERE) set out to trick consumers into thinking the company was providing something rare and costly. They were simply remelting other companies’ chocolate and saying they were “bean-to-bar” chocolatiers. It is true that liars are eventually caught, but in the meantime they make lots of money at the expense of good people, and they leave everyone with the sour taste of feeling cheated.

What to do? How do you protect yourself from these marketing tactics? Simply put, do not trust the magazines or newspapers that depend on advertising for their livelihood! They can’t bite the hand that feeds them…

Who can you trust, then? Skin Actives, for sure.

Beauty brands don’t even bother any more with “genesis stories”. Now they just go for a good name and a photogenic owner. The new brand Pestle & Mortar is selling a Pure Hyaluronic Serum for $69 per ounce (30 ml) with a nice free advertisement in New York Times, the same newspaper that brought you Freeze 24/7.

Instead of falling into the trap, get SAS’ Dermagen at $30 for 4 fluid ounces and you get peptides included in the deal; and feel free to make fun of the people who bought into the gimmick.

-Dr. Hannah Sivak

Nanotechnology in Skin Care

The year was 2000. They told us that nanotechnology is great and that it is the “decade of nanotechnology”. Then they tried to sell us stuff by using the word “nano”.

Ten years later, Robin Cook wrote a medical thriller titled “Nano”.

Soon after, some people began to say that nanotechnology is bad. They ask for money to fund “non-profits” to put pressure on Congress so that everything nano can be banned.

What is nano? You probably learned about this term in high school, when studying the metric system. The nanometer is one thousandth of a micrometer, which is one thousandth of a millimeter, etc.

How small is a nanometer?  Below is a (logarithmic) scale showing where the atom is compared to a giant sequoia.

 

 

Where will you encounter the terms nanotechnology or nanoparticles in skin care? In marketing. These are used as scientific-sounding terms to convey extra penetration of ingredients into the skin. In these cases, just ignore the words completely. It was introduced into the advertising world by marketing departments. You need to check the ingredient list, or ask about the ingredients in the SAS forum.

  Continue reading

Fatty Acids

What is a fatty acid?

A fatty acid (example: palmitic acid) has a carboxylic acid attached to a long hydrocarbon chain.

Why are fatty acids so important?

Fatty acids are used as a major source of energy during metabolism and as a starting point for the synthesis of phospholipids, the main category of lipid molecules used to construct biological membranes (generally composed of two fatty acids linked through glycerol phosphate to one of a variety of polar groups).

Why are the differences in chemical structure so important?

The chemical structure makes the function possible.  Stearic acid cannot do what linoleic acid can.

Fatty acids can differ in

  1. number of carbon in the chain,
  2. number and carbon position of the double (unsaturated) bond (the ω refers to the position of the double bond relative to the #1 carbon in the chain)
  3. configuration of the unsaturated bond (cis vs. trans). A “cis” bond bends the chain in space and is very important for the fluidity of cell membranes.

Note: “trans” bonds are not usually found in nature but in synthetic, hydrogenated fats. (whose idea was to hydrogenate vegetable oils to make margarine? And who decided that they were healthier than butter?)

What is an essential fatty acid?

It is a fatty acids that humans and other animals must ingest because the body requires them for good health but cannot synthesize them. Why not? We don’t have the enzymes (desaturases 12 and 15) required to synthesize them from the saturated fatty acid stearic acid.

Only two fatty acids are known to be essential for humans: alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid).

Some other fatty acids are sometimes classified as “conditionally essential,” meaning that they can become essential under some developmental or disease conditions; examples include docosahexaenoic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and gamma-linolenic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid).  At SAS we use a variety of plant and algae fatty acids to ensure that our skin has a good supply of both essential and conditional essential fatty acids.

Figure: linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid abundant in pitaya oil. Note the position of the double bonds relative to the omega Carbon 1 in red).

Figure: linoleic acid, an essential fatty acid abundant in pitaya oil. Note the position of the double bonds relative to the omega Carbon 1 in red).

 

 

 

 

 

What is the role of fatty acids in our skin?

Cell membranes are crucial to health. Deficiency in essential fatty acids shows as dermatitis.

Fatty acids in general are central to the use of energy in the skin, required to make new skin and maintain function and health.

DIY Vitamin C Serum

There are many DIY vitamin C options. You can take some suggestions from the ascorbic acid usage page for a simple solution, search the forum for tons of different recipes, or try out this recipe below from Dr. Sivak.

DIY vitamin C serum with ascorbic acid, ferulic acid, and phloretin

15% approx.

tsp: teaspoon. All measurements are approximate, unless you have a laboratory scale and can measure grams and milligrams. Use level teaspoons, NOT full teaspoons.

1 tsp (5 g) ascorbic acid
1 tsp Sea Kelp Coral
1 tsp rosehip oil
3 tsp (15 gm) distilled water
1/8 tsp ferulic acid
1/8 tsp phloretin
1/4 tsp Antioxidant Booster
1/4 tsp vodka or pure ethanol (NOT denatured)
1/2 tsp Hyaluronic acid

Use 2 small glasses.

Glass with phase 1 (water)

Put ascorbic acid in glass, add water, stir frequently and let it fully dissolve. If not completely dissolved after 10 min, add a hint more of water.

Glass with phase 2 (alcohol and oils suspension)

While you are waiting for the ascorbic acid to dissolve, you can proceed with the rest. Put the ferulic acid in the 2nd glass, pour the vodka in and stir. Now add the Sea Kelp Coral. Add the Antioxidant Booster and rosehip oil and stir.

When the ascorbic acid has fully dissolved, mix the contents of both glasses together and stir well.

This is not a real solution but a suspension, so mix well before every use.

Finally, add the hyaluronic acid to thicken the mix.

Discard if color changes to brown (this will indicate that ascorbic acid has oxidized).

Babies and Children

Just like we associate certain food smells and tastes with childhood and nostalgia, fragrances from baby products trigger those same feelings. This is why, despite the fact that fragrances in baby creams, shampoos and diapers are unnecessary, they still “sell” and you will find them in most products.

Dr. Sivak's granddaughter Bee

Dr. Sivak’s granddaughter Bee

In most cases, these fragrances are okay. However, the fact remains that we do not know enough about allergies to tell us what can be used without risk of causing long term eczema and contact dermatitis. It seems that even the companies that manufacture these products don’t know enough, and this is bad.

The most offensive example I have found is Boudreaux’s Butt Paste. The name (butt paste) tells you that it is plain and simple, the smell is sweet and homey. The ingredient list is short and to the point:

Active Ingredients: Zinc Oxide 16% (skin protectant)
Inactive Ingredients: Castor oil, mineral oil, paraffin, Peruvian balsam, petrolatum

What’s wrong with this list? Peruvian balsam is an inexpensive fragrance additive that is known to be allergenic.

Read the following excerpt from Wikipedia: “A number of surveys have identified Balsam of Peru as being in the ‘top five’ allergens most commonly causing patch test reactions in people referred to dermatology clinics. It may cause inflammation, redness, swelling, soreness, itching, and blisters, including allergic contact dermatitis, stomatitis (inflammation and soreness of the mouth or tongue), cheilitis (inflammation, rash, or painful erosion of the lips, oropharyngeal mucosa, or angles of their mouth), pruritis, hand eczema, generalized or resistant plantar dermatitis, rhinitis, and conjunctivitis.”

Remember that you don’t know enough about the immune system of your child. If there are “allergy genes” in the family you must be extra careful. In general, occlusion by the diaper can raise the potential for contact dermatitis from topical skin care products because it increases penetration of potential allergens.

In short, the marketing tactics of the diaper and diaper cream companies are harmless for maybe 90% of the baby population, but hurtful to the remaining 10%.

I think 10% is too much, especially when the whole of my family is included!

At Skin Actives, we have no products dedicated to babies and children, but at home I use Dream Cream, Rosehip Seed Oil and Every Lipid Serum. Even Dream Cream (no fragrance at all) can be too much when eczema is flaring up, but ELS and Rosehip Oil can be used at any time.

Instead of a perfumed diaper rash cream, use petrolatum, which will replace the natural skin barrier when it is damaged by diaper rash. Don’t play with fragrances, especially when they come with explicit allergy inducing credentials!

-Dr. Hannah Sivak

Are Your Lips Surviving Winter?

Why do you need anything? Aren’t your lips just like your skin? Not really. The skin of the lips, with their three to five cellular layers, is very thin compared to typical face skin, which has up to 16 layers.

The lip skin does not have sweat glands or hair, so it does not have the usual protective layer of sweat and body oils which keep the skin smooth and somewhat protected. For these reasons, the lips dry out faster and become chapped more easily.dry-lips

And why the color? In people with light skin color, the lip skin contains fewer melanocytes (cells whichproduce melanin which give skin its color). The blood vessels can be seen through the skin of the lips, which makes them look pink/red, and the resistance to UV provided by the melanin will not be there to protect them. Continue reading

Special – Free with orders of $50 or $150

May/June Bonus: Açaí Exfoliating Facial Mask Powder

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Blend this powder with full fat yogurt for an enzymatic mask treatment. The antioxidant-rich Açaí Extractand Sorghum Bicolor Extract paired with the protease enzymes from Bromelain (pineapple) will leave your skin feeling smooth and refreshed.

Orders over $150 – 6 grams Açaí Exfoliating Facial Mask Powder (enough for 4 masks)
Orders over $50 – 3grams Açaí Exfoliating Facial Mask Powder (enough for 2 masks)

INGREDIENTS: Panthenol, Euterpe Oleracea (Acai) Fruit Extract, Aloe Barbadensis (Aloe Vera) Leaf Extract, Bromelain, Sorghum Bicolor Leaf/Stem Extract, Yogurt Powder.

DIRECTIONS: Mix 1.5grams (half of tube) of Açaí Exfoliating Facial Mask Powder into 2oz (1/4 of a cup) of full fat yogurt. Apply to face and neck. Leave on for 10-15 minutes and rinse. Mask may be refrigerated for up to 48 hours after mixing.

Please note: Bonus products are added automatically. No code is required, and they will not show in the shopping cart.

The Concept of Limiting Factors and it’s Application to Skin Care

 

 

Concentration A is carbon dioxide. B is light intensity

 

The graph above describes most biological processes that depend on the supply of nutrients or substrates. I first encountered it as a student of photosynthesis, trying to understand how the effect of light intensity and the concentration of carbon dioxide affected the rate of photosynthesis of a leaf or an alga. In this graph, “A” would have been carbon dioxide and “B” light intensity. You can keep increasing carbon dioxide concentration but then you reach a plateau. At that point, more carbon dioxide will not change the rate of the process, you will have to increase light intensity.

Let’s use the graph to describe, for example, the division of skin cells, a process we want to promote in our aging skin.

Do the cells need glucose? OK, let’s give them glucose and division rate should increase…. but only up to a point, because when the cells have enough glucose, the division rate will stop increasing. Maybe what they need at this point is an amino acid, say, proline? Let’s add it. Division rate will increase but not “forever,” not proportionally to the addition of proline because as soon as there is enough proline, another nutrient will become “limiting.”

If you look at skin from this point of view, and we should because the skin is a biological system that responds in this way to the addition of nutrients, then the “magic ingredient” approach of most skin care companies looks like nonsense (and it is nonsense.)  Even assuming that the kin of all the clients will be in need of the same nutrient, be it an amino acid, a sugar, a vitamin, whatever, it should be apparent that there is a certain amount of that ingredient that will benefit the skin and then something else, not the ingredient advertised as magic, will be required.

This is why SAS ingredient lists are so complex. For example, our Hair Care Serum contains Keratinocyte Growth Factor, a powerful growth factor that will signal the keratinocytes in the scalp that they should multiply and produce hair. In addition, you also need to provide the keratinocytes with the resources to do this job. This is where amino acids, sugars, vitamins and more are required, and so we provide them.

The complexity of biological processes is another reason why we focus each of our products on a particular problem or issue. But we also need to be attentive to the whole of the skin’s biology. What’s the point of killing acne bacteria with powerful oxidants when those oxidants will accelerate skin aging? Instead, we look at the whole picture and aim for long term results.

At Skin Actives we don’t follow the marketing myth machines by using the “ingredient of the month.”  We only use actives that are proven to be effective in published scientific studies.

 

Dr. Hannah Sivak