Shake gently before each use. Gently massage serum into damp scalp once daily after a bath or shower and leave on, ideally overnight.
If you can’t leave on overnight, please allow at least two hours before rinsing serum from scalp.
Seakelp (Lactobacillus/Kelp Ferment Filtrate) Bioferment, Water, Carnitine, Niacinamide, Cocos Nucifera (Coconut) Fruit Juice, Chrysin, Phloretin, Dithiothreitol, Glutamine, Arginine, Leucine, Serine, Cysteine, Valine, Proline, Lysine, Glycine, Asparagine, Glutamic Acid, Threonine, Alanine, Phenylalanine, Methionine, Aspartic Acid, Tyrosine, Tryptophan, Histidine, Isoleucine, Glucose, Oxido Reductase, sh-Polypeptide-3, Catalase, Propylene Glycol (and) Diazolidinyl Urea (and) Methylparaben (and) Propylparaben.
Oxygen, now 21% of the air, is a relatively newcomer to the atmosphere that started accumulating with the development of photosynthesis a few billions of years ago. Respiration, which uses oxygen as the final electron acceptor, is a process that oxidizes organic matter through a series of complex electron transports, extracting most of the energy stored in sugars, amino acids, etc. Increased oxygen concentration in the atmosphere made possible the huge increase in energy extraction provided by respiration, and is a great advantage to life forms that can use oxygen. However, it also brings disadvantages.*
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are free radicals that contain the oxygen atom, are highly reactive, and can be very destructive. ROS are formed as a byproduct of respiration and other life processes, and by external agents, like ultraviolet radiation. Living beings that survived the rise in oxygen concentration (from nothing to 21%) have evolved numerous antioxidant mechanisms to disarm ROS. Some antioxidants are obtained from the diet, like vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, and polyphenols; and others are produced by our bodies, like glutathione and thioredoxin. Antioxidant enzymes, like superoxide dismutases and glutathione peroxidases, are also required.*
When ROS reach our scalp, there are enzymes ready to disarm them. When ROS bypass the defenses, they reach proteins and nucleic acids and cause damage. Some enzymes are capable of repairing such damage.*
Gray hair is what happens when endogenous antioxidant systems fail.*
Let’s talk about two antioxidant enzymes present in our scalp. One enzyme, catalase, protects us from ROS by disarming them. Another, methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR), fixes damage to proteins after it occurs. Inadequacy of these two enzymes seems to be the key to why our hair turns gray.*
Catalase is the enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide into less reactive oxygen and water molecules, preventing damage to the cell's DNA, proteins, and membrane lipids.*
2 H2O2 → 2 H2O + O2
Methionine sulfoxide reductase repairs protein damage caused by ROS that escape the first line of defense. In the scalp, MSR can fix a damaged amino acids in tyrosinase so that it can keep catalyzing the first key step in the synthesis of melanin.*
Gray hair is produced by hair follicles lacking in these two crucial antioxidant enzymes, and our Gray Hair Serum is offering these two enzymes that will help protect your scalp and prevent the loss of hair color.*
Wood, J. M., Decker, H., Hartmann, H., Chavan, B., Rokos, H., Spencer, J. D., Hasse, S., Thornton, M. J., Shalbaf, M., Paus, R., Schallreuter, K. U. (2009) Senile hair graying: H2O2-mediated oxidative stress affects human hair color by blunting methioninesulfoxide repair. July 2009 The FASEB Journal vol. 23 no. 7 2065-2075.