Add the contents of a tube (5 g) to 4 oz of base cream, such as Canvas Base Cream, and mix well.
Glucosamine is an amino sugar and one of the components of Hyaluronic Acid. Hyaluronic Acid, a.k.a. hyaluronan, is a glycosaminoglycan (made of D-glucuronic acid and D-N-acetylglucosamine) that makes up the extracellular matrix (“ground substance”) of the dermis in which we also find the proteins elastin and collagen. Because of its importance, it makes sense that regular use of glucosamine in skin care may bring other benefits. These compounds bind water and are involved in the maintenance of the water and salt balance of the skin. Glucosamine has also been shown to help with several hard to treat skin problems, including atopic dermatitis and hyperpigmentation. Although the mechanism of action is unknown, it seems that glucosamine enhances the benefits of Niacinamide (whose mechanism of action on hyperpigmentation is also unknown) on hyperpigmented skin.*
Another nice effect of Glucosamine is the modulation of exfoliation by keratinocytes. This activity is useful for people who have “flaky” skin, a tendency to get comedos, etc. For those who have very sensitive skin or rosacea, Glucosamine may be a helpful substitute for acid exfoliation (with acids like lactic, ascorbic, etc.).*
(*See reference tab for scientific resources)
Kim, C. -H., Cheong, K. A., Park, C. D., Lee, A. –Y (2011) Glucosamine Improved Atopic Dermatitis-like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice by Inhibition of Th2 Cell Development. Scandinavian J. Immunology 73: 536-545.
Callender, Valerie D., St Surin-Lord, Sharleen, Davis, Erica C., Maclin, Marissa (2011) Postinflammatory Hyperpigmentation Etiologic and Therapeutic Considerations American J. Clinical Dermatology, 87-99.
Mammone T, Gan D, Fthenakis C, Marenus K (2009) The effect of N-acetyl-glucosamine on stratum corneum desquamation and water content in human skin. Journal Cosmetic Science 60 423-428.
Kimball, A. B., Kaczvinsky, J. R., Li, J., Robinson, L. R., Matts, P. J.Berge, C. A.Miyamoto, K.)Bissett, D. L. (2010) Reduction in the appearance of facial hyperpigmentation after use of moisturizers with a combination of topical niacinamide and N-acetyl glucosamine: results of a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial. British J Dermatology 162: 435-441.