ELS serum can be used directly on the skin as a daily rejuvenating serum. Apply the desired amount of serum to clean skin on the face or body daily, or as needed to nourish dry skin. You can also layer ELS under other serums and creams when extra moisture is needed.
Alternatively, you may add some of our other actives to create a world class serum targeted to your needs. This serum is the perfect base for CoEnzyme Q10 and our other lipophilic actives.
Please note that Alpha Lipoic Acid is already included in the serum and additional quantities will be difficult to dissolve.
Squalane, Linum Usitatissmum (Flax) Seed Oil, Rosa Canina (Rosehip) Seed Oil, Lecithin, Salvia Hispanica (Chia) Seed Oil, Punica Granatum (Pomegranate) Seed Oil, Argania Spinosa (Argan) Kernel Oil, Tocotrienols, Tocopherols, Astaxanthin, Lycopene, Xanthophyll, R-Alpha Lipoic Acid, Beta-Carotene, Docosahexanoic Acid, Ceramide-3, Cholesteryl Oleyl Carbonate (and) Cholesteryl Nonanoate (and) Cholesteryl Chloride (and) BHT, Phytosterols, Oryzanol.
Lipids are biomolecules grouped together not because of chemical structure, but on the basis of their insolubility in water and solubility in organic solvents. Lipids can have very different chemical structures and also diverse functions. They are the primary component of most cell membranes, energy storage molecules, signaling compounds, and enzyme cofactors.
Lipids are "built" from fatty acids and can be subdivided into two groups: 1) open chain structures including fatty acids, triacylglycerols, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and glycolipids and 2) closed or fused chain structures: the steroids (including cholesterol).
Fatty Acids: Fatty acids have two major roles in the body: as components of more complex membrane lipids and as the major components of stored fat in the form of triacylglycerols. Triglycerides, sometimes called oils, are triesters of glycerin with three equivalents of fatty acid. Fatty acids are formed from two carbon units, therefore they usually have even numbers of carbon atoms. Hydrocarbon chains contain from 4-36 carbons. Although they are hydrophobic, they are amphipathic because of the -COOH group which can ionize so that shorter chains are slightly soluble in water. Fatty acids can be fully saturated or partially unsaturated; double bonds are usually in the cis configuration.
The properties of fatty acids are determined by the length of the chain and the degree of saturation. Fatty acids tend to aggregate with the extended chains packed next to one another. This close association promotes many interactions.
Saturated Fatty acids (e.g. animal fats, like butter) tend to be flexible due to rotation around the carbon single bonds. They have relatively high melting points due to the high degree of packing between adjacent unsaturated chains.
Unsaturated Fatty acids (many vegetable oils) tend to be more rigid and have relatively low melting temps due to the disruption of packing by the introduction of double bonds (fewer van der Waals interactions).
Other lipids that you will find in our ELS:
Glycerophospholipids or phospholipids (Phosphatidic acid is the precursor, there is no head group, just phosphate). They are made of glycerol backbone plus 2 fatty acids plus phosphate plus a head group (can be choline, serine, inositol). The head group is usually charged at physiological pH therefore these compounds are amphipathic, contributing to the stabilization of lipids in bilayer membranes.
Sphingolipids. Here sphingosine is the backbone, plus a fatty acid and the headgroup (choline or carbohydrate).
Sterols are formed by a steroid nucleus plus a charged head group. Steroids are amphipathic but -OH is the head group. Sterols, especially cholesterol, are the precursors for many important signaling molecules such as hormones. Cholesterol is a sterol in membranes that regulates membrane fluidity.
The steroid nucleus prevents crystallization of lipids at low temperatures, increasing the fluidity of membranes at low temperatures. The steroid also intercalates between fatty acid chains that have kinks due to double bonds, increasing non-covalent, molecule to molecule interactions at higher temperatures, so the presence of cholesterol decreases fluidity at higher temperatures
FAQ: What are omega 3? Why are they important?
Omega-3 fatty acids (also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids) are fats commonly found in marine and plant oils. They are polyunsaturated fatty acids with a double bond (C=C) at the third carbon atom from the end of the carbon chain. The fatty acids have two ends; the acid (-COOH) end, which is considered the beginning of the chain, thus "alpha", and the methyl (CH3) end, which is considered the "tail" of the chain, thus "omega". The nomenclature of the fatty acid is taken from the location of the first double bond, counted from the methyl end, that is, the omega (ω-) or the n- end. Long-chain omega−3 fatty acids seem to have anti-inflammatory activity.
Omega-3 fatty acids are considered essential fatty acids, meaning that they cannot be synthesized by the human body but are vital for normal metabolism. Though mammals cannot synthesize omega−3 fatty acids, they have a limited ability to form the long-chain omega−3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20 carbons and 5 double bonds), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22 carbons and 6 double bonds), and α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18 carbons and 3 double bonds).