Each tube is enough for about 4 fl oz of cream or lotion at 5% concentration (6 g in 120 mL cream) and can be combined with our other actives. The powder will not dissolve immediately, but will release components slowly into the cream or lotion. Use in your favorite cream or add to our Canvas Base Cream or European Cream.
For the best skin lightening results, we suggest a concentration of 1.5% (1.8 gm) in 4 oz of cream working synergistically with other skin lighteners like our Kojic Acid Dipalmitate, Betulinic Acid, and Niacinamide. The different actives will target different steps of the melanin synthesis and delivery pathway.
Arbutin (a.k.a. beta arbutin, ursine) is a glycosylated hydroquinone present in the leaves of the Bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) and responsible for the skin lightening properties of the plant extract. Just like hydroquinone, the shape of arbutin resembles the amino acid tyrosine enough to “fool” tyrosinase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first transformation of tyrosine into melanin. Inhibition of the enzyme in this way is called “competitive” because the false substrate, arbutin, competes with the real one, tyrosine, for the active site of the enzyme.*
Arbutin is also an antioxidant, alleviating oxidative stress responses such as leukocyte infiltration and hydrogen peroxide generation by chemical agents.*
(*See reference tab for scientific resources)
Tomita, Kenichi; Fukuda, Minoru; Kawasaki, Kiyoshi (1990) Mechanism of arbutin inhibitory effect on melanogenesis and effect on the human skin with cosmetic use. Fragrance Journal (1990), 18: 72-7.
Siegers, C. P.; Siegers, J. P.; Pentz, R.; Bodinet, C.; Freudenstein, J. (1997) Metabolism of arbutin from Uva ursi-extracts in humans. Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Letters 7: 90-92.
Jin, Ying Hua; Lee, Suk Jin; Chung, Myung Hee; Park, Jeong Hill; Park, Young In; Cho, Tae Hyeong; Lee, Seung Ki. (1999) Aloesin and arbutin inhibit tyrosinase activity in a synergistic manner via a different action mechanism Archives of Pharmacal Research 22: 232-236.
Maeda, Kazuhisa; Fukuda, Minoru (1996) Arbutin: mechanism of its depigmenting action in human melanocyte culture. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 276: 765-9.