As this is a concentrated mixture of pigmented antioxidants, we recommend you only add a couple of drops at a time to your cream, lotion, bath water, or any other application. When added to our Canvas Base Cream or European Cream, you get a fantastic antioxidant moisturizer with the addition of only one ingredient!
Punica Granatum (Pomegranate) Seed Oil, Tocotrienols, Tocopherols, Astaxanthin, Lycopene, Xanthophyll, R-Alpha Lipoic Acid, Beta-Carotene.
This product contains vitamin E in the form of alpha-D-tocopherol. The requirement for vitamin E was detected when researchers found that unless it was present in the diet, pregnancy (in laboratory rats) could not be completed. Indeed, the name "tocopherol" derives from the Greek words for childbirth (tos), and to bring forth (phero). Vitamin E serves as a scavenger for free radicals that are destructive to the cell membrane, whose integrity is paramount to cell metabolism and life. Although alpha-D-tocopherol is the most widespread vitamin E, other tocols are also vitamin E, in the sense that they have vitamin E activity. The only difference between tocotrienols and tocopherol is that tocotrienols have three double bonds in their side chain and have a higher antioxidant activity.*
(*See reference tab for scientific resources)
Savoure, Nicole; Briand, Gilberte; Amory-Touz, Marie-Christine; Combre, Alain; Maudet, Maryvonne; Nicol, Marc (1995) Vitamin A status and metabolism of cutaneous polyamines in the hairless mouse after UV irradiation: action of beta-carotene and astaxanthin. International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research: 65(2), 79-86.
Seki, Taisuke; Sueki, Hirohiko; Kohno, Hiromi; Suganuma, Kaoru; Yamashita, Eiji (2001) Effects of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis on human skin. Patch testing, skin repeated application test, effect on wrinkle reduction. Fragrance Journal : 29(12), 98-103.
Trevithick, JR, Xiong H, Lee S. (1992) Topical tocopherol acetate reduces post-UVB sunburn associated erythema, edema and skin sensitivity in hairless mice. Arch Biochem Biophys 296: 575. Kiyose, Chikako; Ueda, Tadahiko (2004) Distribution and metabolism of tocopherols and tocotrienols in vivo. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 35(1), 47-52
Weber, Christine; Podda, Maurizio; Rallis, Michalis; Thiele, Jens J.; Traber, Maret G.; Packer, Lester. (1997) Efficacy of topically applied tocopherols and tocotrienols in protection of murine skin from oxidative damage induced by UV-irradiation. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 22(5), 761-769.